Mood Disorders

Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2021 Dec 1;27(6):1712-1737. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001051.


Purpose of review: This comprehensive review of mood disorders brings together the past and current literature on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of the depressive and bipolar disorders. It highlights the primary mood disorders and secondary neurologic causes of mood disorders that are commonly encountered in a clinical setting. As the literature and our understanding evolve, recent additions to the current literature are important to bring forth to the readers.

Recent findings: Advancements in clinical medicine have strengthened our understanding of the associations of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. This article highlights the medications frequently used with newly identified mood disorders and the common side effects of these medications. A paradigm shift has moved toward newer treatment modalities, such as the use of ketamine, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and complementary and alternative medicine. The risks and benefits of such therapies, along with medications, are reviewed in this article.

Summary: Mood disorders are extraordinarily complex disorders with significant association with many neurologic disorders. Early identification of these mood disorders can prevent significant morbidity and mortality associated with them. With further expansion of pharmacologic options, more targeted therapy is possible in improving quality of life for patients.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bipolar Disorder* / complications
  • Bipolar Disorder* / diagnosis
  • Bipolar Disorder* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Mood Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Mood Disorders* / therapy
  • Quality of Life