Does preexisting or treatment-emergent autoimmunity increase the risk of subsequent autoimmune disease in individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) after alemtuzumab? In the extended phase 2/3 trials, 34/96 (35.4%) patients with and 395/1120 (35.3%) without preexisting autoimmunity developed non-MS autoimmunity. Thyroid autoimmunity after alemtuzumab courses 1 or 2 did not increase subsequent non-thyroid autoimmune adverse events. Therefore, autoimmune disease before or after alemtuzumab treatment does not predict autoimmunity after further courses, so should not preclude adequate alemtuzumab dosing to control MS. Finally, post-marketing safety data contribute toward a full record of the alemtuzumab benefit/risk profile for the MS field.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00050778 NCT00530348 NCT00548405 NCT00930553 NCT02255656.
Keywords: Multiple sclerosis; alemtuzumab; autoimmunity; post-marketing; product surveillance; risk assessment; treatment outcome.