Analysis of GNSS, Hydroacoustic and Optoelectronic Data Integration Methods Used in Hydrography

Sensors (Basel). 2021 Nov 25;21(23):7831. doi: 10.3390/s21237831.


The integration of geospatial data in hydrography, performed using different measurement systems, involves combining several study results to provide a comprehensive analysis. Each of the hydroacoustic and optoelectronic systems is characterised by a different spatial reference system and the method for technical implementation of the measurement. Therefore, the integration of hydrographic data requires that problems in selected fields of electronics, geodesy and physics (acoustics and optics) be solved. The aim of this review is to present selected fusion methods applying the data derived from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Real Time Kinematic (RTK) measurements, hydrographic surveys, a photogrammetric pass using unmanned vehicles and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and compare their accuracy. An additional goal is the evalution of data integration methods according to the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) S-44 standard. The publication is supplemented by implementation examples of the integration of geospatial data in the Geographic Information System (GIS). The methods described indicate the lack of a uniform methodology for data fusion due to differences in both the spatial reference systems and the techniques used. However, the integration of hydroacoustic and optoelectronic data allows for high accuracy geospatial data to be obtained. This is confirmed by the methods cited, in which the accuracy of integrated geospatial data was in the order of several centimetres.

Keywords: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS); data integration; hydroacoustic methods; hydrographic surveys; optoelectronic methods.

Publication types

  • Review