Optimal sensor network deployment in built environments for tracking, surveillance, and monitoring of dynamic phenomena is one of the most challenging issues in sensor network design and applications (e.g., people movement). Most of the current methods for sensor network deployment and optimization are empirical and they often result in important coverage gaps in the monitored areas. To overcome these limitations, several optimization methods have been proposed in the recent years. However, most of these methods oversimplify the environment and do not consider the complexity of 3D architectural nature of the built environments specially for indoor applications (e.g., indoor navigation, evacuation, etc.). In this paper, we propose a novel local optimization algorithm based on a 3D Voronoi diagram, which allows a clear definition of the proximity relations between sensors in 3D indoor environments. This proposed structure is integrated with an IndoorGML model to efficiently manage indoor environment components and their relations as well as the sensors in the network. To evaluate the proposed method, we compared our results with the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) algorithms. The results show that the proposed method achieved 98.86% coverage which is comparable to GA and CMA-ES algorithms, while also being about six times more efficient.
Keywords: 3D Voronoi structure; 3D environment; deployment; indoor; sensor network.