We aimed to identify novel markers for aggressive prostate cancer in a STAT3-low proteomics-derived dataset of mitochondrial proteins by immunohistochemical analysis and correlation with transcriptomic data and biochemical recurrence in a STAT3 independent PCa cohort. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) sample selection for proteomic analysis and tissue-microarray (TMA) generation was conducted from a cohort of PCa patients. Retrospective data analysis was performed with the same cohort. 153 proteins differentially expressed between STAT3-low and STAT3-high samples were identified. Out of these, 46 proteins were associated with mitochondrial processes including oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and 45 proteins were upregulated, including NDUFS1/ATP5O. In a STAT3 independent PCa cohort, high expression of NDUFS1/ATP5O was confirmed by immunocytochemistry (IHC) and was significantly associated with earlier biochemical recurrence (BCR). mRNA expression levels for these two genes were significantly higher in intra-epithelial neoplasia and in PCa compared to benign prostate glands. NDUFS1/ATP5O levels are increased both at the mRNA and protein level in aggressive PCa. Our results provide evidence that NDUFS1/ATP5O could be used to identify high-risk PCa patients.
Keywords: ATP5O; FFPE-proteomics; NDUFS1; OXPHOS; STAT3; prostate cancer; transcriptomics.