Botanical, Phytochemical, Anti-Microbial and Pharmaceutical Characteristics of Hawthorn (Crataegusmonogyna Jacq.), Rosaceae

Molecules. 2021 Nov 30;26(23):7266. doi: 10.3390/molecules26237266.


Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) is a wild edible fruit tree of the genus Crataegus, one of the most interesting genera of the Rosaceae family. This review is the first to consider, all together, the pharmaceutical, phytochemical, functional and therapeutic properties of C. monogyna based on numerous valuable secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, vitamin C, glycoside, anthocyanin, saponin, tannin and antioxidants. Previous reviews dealt with the properties of all species of the entire genera. We highlight the multi-therapeutic role that C. monogyna extracts could have in the treatment of different chronic and degenerative diseases, mainly focusing on flavonoids. In the first part of this comprehensive review, we describe the main botanical characteristics and summarize the studies which have been performed on the morphological and genetic characterization of the C. monogyna germplasm. In the second part, the key metabolites and their nutritional and pharmaceutical properties are described. This work could be an essential resource for promoting future therapeutic formulations based on this natural and potent bioactive plant extract.

Keywords: Hawthorn; flavonoids; free radical scavenging; pharmaceutical; phytochemical.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Crataegus / chemistry*
  • Crataegus / genetics
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / analysis*
  • Phytochemicals / analysis*
  • Phytochemicals / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Phytochemicals
  • Plant Extracts