The effect of orthognathic surgery on temporomandibular disorder

J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2022 Mar;50(3):218-224. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2021.11.012. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the difference in prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) before and after orthognathic surgery (OGS), particularly in patients with mandibular asymmetry. A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing corrective orthognathic surgery was conducted. Pre-operative and post-operative (3 months, 6 months and 1 year) TMD assessment were performed according to the Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) protocol. 64 patients were included in the study. Overall, there was a significant reduction of 26.5% in TMD prevalence from 60.9% pre-operatively to 34.4% 1-year post-operatively (p = 0.003). In all, 37.5% of patients had their TMD condition treated, 50% had no change in their symptoms while 12.5% experienced a worsening of their symptoms. No significant difference in terms of change in TMJ status was observed among the different ramus procedures, the type and magnitude of mandibular movement, skeletal class, and presence of mandibular asymmetry. In conclusion, it appears that corrective orthognathic surgery for dentofacial deformities might provide a secondary benefit of treating TMD. However, surgeons have to be aware that a small percentage of patients might experience a deterioration of their TMD condition, and that those who were previously asymptomatic may develop TMD symptoms after surgery.

Keywords: Dentofacial deformity; Mandibular asymmetry; Orthognathic surgery; Temporomandibular disorder.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Mandible / surgery
  • Orthognathic Surgery*
  • Orthognathic Surgical Procedures* / adverse effects
  • Prospective Studies
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders* / diagnosis