Chewing increases postprandial diet-induced thermogenesis

Sci Rep. 2021 Dec 9;11(1):23714. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-03109-x.


Slow eating, which involves chewing food slowly and thoroughly, is an effective strategy for controlling appetite in order to avoid being overweight or obese. Slow eating also has the effect of increasing postprandial energy expenditure (diet-induced thermogenesis). It is still unclear whether this is due to oral stimuli; that is, the duration of tasting food in the mouth and the duration of chewing. To investigate the effects of oral stimuli on diet-induced thermogenesis in 11 healthy normal weight males, we conducted a randomized crossover study comprising three trials: (1) drinking liquid food normally, (2) drinking liquid food after tasting, and (3) adding chewing while tasting. Oral stimuli (i.e., the duration of tasting liquid food in the mouth and the duration of chewing) significantly increased diet-induced thermogenesis after drinking liquid food. This result demonstrates that the increase in diet-induced thermogenesis is due to oral stimuli rather than the influence of the food bolus. Increased diet-induced thermogenesis induced by chewing and taste stimuli may help to prevent overweight and obesity.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Circulation
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Digestion
  • Energy Intake
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mastication*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Postprandial Period
  • Splanchnic Circulation
  • Thermogenesis*
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers