Alphaviruses in Peninusular Malaysia: I. Virus Isolations and Animal Serology

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1978 Sep;9(3):317-29.


A survey of the activity of three alphaviruses (Sindbis, getah and chikungunya) in Peninsular Malaysia was conducted between 1962 and 1970. Serum samples were examined from 3,917 vertebrates representing a wide variety of wild and domestic animals throughout the peninsula for hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing antibodies. A total of 548,939 mosquitoes were collected from different habitats, including jungle, rural, suburban and urban areas, and the majority of the females taken were examined for the presence of virus. Two strains of Sindbis virus and one strain of getah virus were isolated from pools of Culex mosquitoes collected in and around domestic animal shelters. Analysis of the serological results indicated that, 1) getah virus is associated principally with large domestic animals, particularly swine, 2) Sindbis virus is associated with large domestic animals and birds, especially domestic ducks, and 3) chikungunya virus, which has not yet been isolated in Malaysia, appeared to be present at a very low level of activity, probably with wild monkeys as the vertebrate hosts.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Population Groups / immunology*
  • Animals
  • Animals, Domestic / immunology*
  • Animals, Wild / immunology*
  • Antibodies, Viral / analysis*
  • Arboviruses / immunology
  • Arboviruses / isolation & purification*
  • Chikungunya virus / immunology
  • Culicidae / microbiology
  • Female
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Male
  • Sindbis Virus / immunology


  • Antibodies, Viral