Predictors of long-term mortality among perioperative survivors of Fontan operation

Eur Heart J. 2022 Jul 1;43(25):2373-2384. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehab826.


Aims: The criteria for 'good' Fontan haemodynamics have been poorly defined in relation to long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for mortality among haemodynamic parameters obtained early after the Fontan operation.

Methods and results: Clinical data of all perioperative survivors of the Fontan operation performed before 2011, from nine institutions, were collected through a retrospective chart review. In total, 1260 patients were included. The median age at the time of Fontan operation was 3.6 years. Post-operative cardiac catheterization was conducted in 1117 patients at a median period of 1.0 years after the operation. During the median follow-up period of 10.2 years, 107 patients died. The mortality rates at 10, 20, and 25 years after the operation were 5%, 12%, and 22%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, older age at the time of the operation {≥15 years, hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 3.2 (1.7-5.9)} and haemodynamic parameters obtained at post-operative catheterization, such as low ejection fraction [<30%, HR (95% CI): 7.5 (3.2-18)], low systemic oxygen saturation [<80%, HR (95% CI): 3.8 (1.6-9.1)], high central venous pressure [≥16 mmHg, HR (95% CI): 2.3 (1.3-3.9)], and low mean systemic arterial pressure [<60 mmHg, HR (95% CI): 3.0 (1.4-6.2)] were identified as independent predictors of mortality. The predictive model based on these parameters had a c-index of 0.75 at 10 years.

Conclusions: Haemodynamic parameters obtained at a median period of 1.0 years, post-operatively, can accurately identify patients with a high mortality risk, who may need intensive management to improve long-term outcomes.

Keywords: Cardiac catheterization; Cumulative incidence of death; Fontan-associated morbidities; Mode of death; Post-Fontan haemodynamics; Risk stratification.

Publication types

  • Editorial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Comment

MeSH terms

  • Fontan Procedure* / adverse effects
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Survivors