Viral infections, including hepatitis C, can cause secondary glomerular nephropathies. Studies suggest that hepatitis C virus infection (HCV+) is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) but evidence of this relationship is lacking among Hispanics/Latinos. We examined the association between HCV+ and incident CKD in a prospective cohort of Hispanics/Latinos enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. HCV+ was defined by detectable HCV antibodies with additional confirmation through HCV RNA or recombinant immunoblot assay testing. Incident CKD was defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or sex-specific threshold for albuminuria measured during follow-up. We used Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) of CKD and changes in eGFR- or albuminuria-based risk stages, separately. We used linear regression to estimate associations with continuous, annualized changes in eGFR and albuminuria.Over a follow-up period of 5.9 years, 712 incident CKD events occurred among 10,430 participants. After adjustment for demographic characteristics and comorbidities, HCV+ was not associated with incident CKD, defined by eGFR and albuminuria thresholds (IRR 1.29, 95% Confidence Interval 0.61, 2.73). HCV+ was significantly associated with higher eGFR risk stages (IRR 2.39, 95% CI 1.47, 3.61) with most participants transitioning from stage G1 to G2. HCV+ was associated with a continuous, annualized eGFR decline of -0.69 mL/min/m2/year (95% CI -1.23, -0.16). This large, cohort study did not find evidence of a strong association between HCV+ and new-onset CKD among Hispanics/Latinos. HCV infection may not be associated with risk of CKD among Hispanics/Latinos, although treatment with direct-acting antivirals is recommended for all HCV+ individuals, including those with established CKD or end-stage kidney disease.
Copyright © 2021 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.