Analysis and Design of a Bypass Socket for Transradial Amputations

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2021 Nov;2021:4611-4614. doi: 10.1109/EMBC46164.2021.9630008.


The ability to measure functional performance of a prosthesis is hindered by the lack of an equalized mechanical platform to test from. Researchers and designers seeking to increase the pace of development have attempted novel mounts for prostheses so these can be used by able-bodied participants. Termed "bypass sockets", these can increase the sampling pool during prosthetic evaluations. Here, we present an open-source, 3D printable prosthetic bypass socket for below-elbow (transradial) amputations. Methods to quantify the effectiveness of bypass sockets are limited and therefore we propose the use of a validated and clinically relevant evaluation tool, the Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control (ACMC). We performed the ACMC in six able-bodied subjects with limited experience with myoelectric prostheses and found the participants to be rated from "non-" to "somewhat capable" using the ACMC interpretation scale. In addition, we conducted a secondary evaluation consisting of a subset of tasks of the Cybathlon competition aimed at eliciting fatigue in the participants. All participants completed said tasks, suggesting that the bypass socket is suitable for extended use during prosthesis development.Clinical Relevance- The design and validation of the bypass socket presented here can facilitate the development of upper limb prosthetic systems.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amputation, Surgical
  • Artificial Limbs*
  • Humans
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Prosthesis Implantation
  • Upper Extremity