Optimization of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic pretreatment for enhanced extraction of baicalein and wogonin from Scutellaria baicalensis roots

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2022 Jan 1:1188:123077. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2021.123077. Epub 2021 Dec 3.


It is of great theoretical interest and industrial significance to improve the extraction efficiency of baicalein and wogonin from Scutellaria baicalensis roots because of their high pharmacological activities. The present study was aimed to establish the optimized ultrasound-assisted enzymatic pretreatment (UAEP) process by which ultrasound irradiation and the exogenous enzyme were simultaneously applied to efficiently transform baicalin and wogonoside into baicalein and wogonin, enhancing their extraction efficiency. Single-factor experiment and Box-Behnken design were used to optimize the main UAEP conditions to maximize the total extraction yield of baicalein and wogonin. The optimized UAEP conditions were cellulase concentration of 1.1%, pH of 5.5, UAEP temperature of 56.5 °C, UAEP time of 39.4 min, and ultrasonic power of 200 W with the total extraction yield of 82.51 ± 0.85 mg/g DW. The comparison of the established technique with the reference method based on the enzymatic pretreatment revealed that the productive efficiency was significantly improved with the transformation rates nearly doubled. These results suggest that the optimized UAEP process has the potential to be applied for the green, simple, and efficient extraction of baicalein and wogonin in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

Keywords: Baicalein; Enzyme; Hydrolysis; Optimization; Ultrasound; Wogonin.

MeSH terms

  • Cellulase / metabolism
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Flavanones / analysis
  • Flavanones / chemistry
  • Flavanones / isolation & purification*
  • Limit of Detection
  • Linear Models
  • Plant Roots / chemistry
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Scutellaria baicalensis / chemistry*
  • Scutellaria baicalensis / metabolism
  • Sonication / methods*


  • Flavanones
  • baicalein
  • Cellulase
  • wogonin