Nutritional supplementation in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma

Surv Ophthalmol. 2022 Jul-Aug;67(4):1081-1098. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2021.12.001. Epub 2021 Dec 8.


Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy that creates a significant burden on public health. Oxidative stress is hypothesized to play a role to glaucoma progression, and its reduction is being analyzed as a therapeutic target. Dietary antioxidants play a crucial role in helping provide insight into this hypothesis. We reviewed 71 trials, interventional, in-vivo and Iin vitro, including 11 randomized controlled trials, to determine if adjunctive nutritional supplementation could lead to a reduction in oxidative stress and prevent glaucomatous progression. Many laboratory findings show that vitamins and natural compounds contain an abundance of intrinsic antioxidative, neuroprotective and vasoprotective properties that show promise in the treatment and prevention of glaucoma. Although there is encouraging early evidence, most clinical findings are inconclusive. The group of B vitamins appear to have the greatest amount of evidence. Other compounds such as flavonoids, carotenoids, curcumin, saffron, CoQ10, gingko biloba, and resveratrol however warrant further investigation in glaucoma patients. Studies of these antioxidants and other nutrients could create adjunctive or alternative preventative and treatment modalities for glaucoma to those currently available.

Keywords: Glaucoma; Nutrients; Open Angle Glaucoma; Oxidative Stress; Reactive Oxygen Species; Retinal Ganglion Cells; Supplements; Trabecular Meshwork; Vitamins.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants* / therapeutic use
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Glaucoma* / drug therapy
  • Glaucoma* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use


  • Antioxidants
  • Vitamins