Iliac Artery Aneurysms Expand in Quadratically Proportion to the Diameter

Ann Vasc Surg. 2022 May:82:258-264. doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2021.10.063. Epub 2021 Dec 10.


Background: Iliac artery aneurysms (IAAs) are life-threatening once ruptured. Although some studies have revealed the pathology of IAAs, clinical information on IAAs is still limited. Moreover, previous studies were conducted in Western countries; thus, we aimed to identify the natural history of iliac artery aneurysms in a Japanese cohort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the IAA expansion rate in a Japanese cohort to consider the management of small IAAs and to identify indications for surgical intervention.

Methods: Patients with iliac artery aneurysms were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the expansion rate of IAAs. We also investigated the correlation between expansion rate and patients' characteristics. Natural histories, including surgical interventions and rupture, were also assessed.

Results: The mean expansion rate in our study was 1.59 ± 1.16 mm/year. There was a positive correlation between expansion rate and aneurysm diameter, which was estimated by y = 0.0052 × (X - 23.270)2 + 0.0632 × X - 0.0517, where y is the expansion rate, and X is aneurysm diameter. The freedom from surgical intervention rate of IAAs was 85.5% at 1 year, 54.0% at 3 years, and 41.5% at 5 years. No factors, except initial aneurysm diameter, were revealed as independent predictors of surgical intervention. We experienced one ruptured IAA, which showed unexpected rapid growth from 30.1 mm to 56.3 mm over 15 months during conservative management. This case demonstrated that IAAs ≥30 mm should be carefully followed up and considered for surgical intervention.

Conclusions: We conclude that larger aneurysms have greater expansion rates. Because IAAs ≥30 mm carry a risk of rapid expansion resulting in rupture, careful follow-up, and surgical intervention should be performed if iliac artery aneurysms are ≥30 mm in diameter.

Keywords: aneurysm diameter; expansion rate; iliac artery aneurysm; iliac artery aneurysm rupture; positive correlation.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation* / adverse effects
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation* / methods
  • Humans
  • Iliac Aneurysm* / diagnostic imaging
  • Iliac Aneurysm* / etiology
  • Iliac Aneurysm* / surgery
  • Iliac Artery / surgery
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome