Residual hip dysplasia may exist despite appropriate treatment of congenital hip dysplasia (CHD). The abnormalities chiefly affect the acetabulum and can lead to premature osteoarthritis. Although the main cause is delayed treatment of CHD, primary lesions are also possible and may be worsened by the initial treatment itself. Residual hip dysplasia must be detected during the follow-up of patients with CHD. The antero-posterior radiograph of the pelvis is the main diagnostic tool. However, the importance of non-ossified anatomical structures requires additional investigations such as arthrography and magnetic resonance imaging. The risk of premature osteoarthritis is difficult to predict based only on the imaging-study findings. Hip dysplasia is best treated before 5 years of age. The work-up at this age should allow determination of the best treatment. Surgery is required but should not be performed unnecessarily. The decision rests on the absence of improvement in the radiographic criteria and on the findings from additional imaging studies. The usual treatment is Salter's osteotomy, during which excessive anterior displacement should be avoided. At adolescence, the information provided by radiography in the coronal plane should be completed by a three-dimensional evaluation of the acetabulum and an assessment of the quality of the labrum. The shelf procedure has been proven to relieve pain and to significantly postpone the need for hip arthroplasty, when performed early, before the development of visible osteoarthritis, and on a congruent hip. Chiari's osteotomy has a role to play in complex dysplasia affecting both the acetabulum and the femur. Periacetabular osteotomy is getting more used thanks to cooperation between paediatric and adult orthopaedic surgeons. This osteotomy provides optimal correction in all three dimensions.
Keywords: Acetabular osteotomy; Congenital hip dislocation; Labrum; Premature osteoarthritis; Residual hip dysplasia.
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