Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection and Its Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Biomed Res Int. 2021 Dec 1:2021:6551526. doi: 10.1155/2021/6551526. eCollection 2021.


Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. It is associated with different maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes such as low birth weight, preterm birth, still birth, preeclampsia, maternal anemia, sepsis, and amnionitis, even when the infection is asymptomatic. However, in Ethiopia, it is represented with fragmented and inconclusive pocket studies. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis is aimed at estimating the pooled prevalence of UTI and its associated factors among pregnant women in Ethiopia.

Methods: PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and local sources were used to access eligible studies. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument was applied for critical appraisal. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated using I 2 statistic, funnel plot asymmetry, and Egger's tests. Random effect model was employed to estimate the pooled burden of UTI and its associated factors among pregnant women with its corresponding odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Result: From all systematically searched articles, 14 studies were eligible for this analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of UTI among pregnant women in Ethiopia was 15.37% (95% CI: 12.54, 18.19). Family monthly income (OR = 3.8 and 95% CI: 1.29, 11.23), parity (OR = 1.59 and 95% CI: 1.01, 2.50), history of catheterization (OR = 2.76 and 95% CI: 1.31, 5.84), and history of UTI (OR = 3.12 and 95% CI: 1.74, 5.60) were factors significantly associated with UTI among pregnant women in Ethiopia.

Conclusion: The overall pooled estimate of UTI among pregnant women in Ethiopia was higher compared with CDC estimation which was 8%. Family monthly income < 1000ETB, multipara, previous history of catheterization, and history of UTI were factors increased burden of UTI during pregnancy. So, strategies targeting in economic reforms, universal access of family planning, and standardized prenatal care service should be addressed to alleviate this high prevalence of UTI during pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Ethiopia / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnant Women
  • Prevalence
  • Urinary Tract Infections / epidemiology*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / etiology*