State-of-the-Art Review on Myelofibrosis Therapies

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2022 May;22(5):e350-e362. doi: 10.1016/j.clml.2021.11.007. Epub 2021 Nov 15.


Myelofibrosis (MF) is a BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by anemia, extramedullary hematopoiesis, bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms and acute myeloid leukemia progression. Currently, allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) therapy is the only curative option for MF patients. However, AHSCT is strictly limited due to the high rates of morbidity and mortality. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor Ruxolitinib is the first-line treatment for intermediate-II or high-risk MF patients with splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms, but most MF patients develop resistance or intolerance to Ruxolitinib. Therefore, MF treatment is a challenge for the medical community. This review summarizes 3 investigated directions for MF therapy: monotherapies of JAK inhibitors, monotherapies of non-JAK targeted agents, combination therapies of Ruxolitinib and other agents. We emphasize combination of Ruxolitinib and other agents is a promising strategy.

Keywords: Inhibitor; Janus kinase; Myeloproliferative neoplasm; Primary myelofibrosis; Ruxolitinib.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anemia*
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Humans
  • Primary Myelofibrosis* / diagnosis
  • Primary Myelofibrosis* / drug therapy
  • Splenomegaly