Stankiewicz-Isidor syndrome: expanding the clinical and molecular phenotype

Genet Med. 2022 Jan;24(1):179-191. doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2021.09.005. Epub 2021 Nov 30.


Purpose: Haploinsufficiency of PSMD12 has been reported in individuals with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), facial dysmorphism, and congenital malformations, defined as Stankiewicz-Isidor syndrome (STISS). Investigations showed that pathogenic variants in PSMD12 perturb intracellular protein homeostasis. Our objective was to further explore the clinical and molecular phenotypic spectrum of STISS.

Methods: We report 24 additional unrelated patients with STISS with various truncating single nucleotide variants or copy-number variant deletions involving PSMD12. We explore disease etiology by assessing patient cells and CRISPR/Cas9-engineered cell clones for various cellular pathways and inflammatory status.

Results: The expressivity of most clinical features in STISS is highly variable. In addition to previously reported DD/ID, speech delay, cardiac and renal anomalies, we also confirmed preaxial hand abnormalities as a feature of this syndrome. Of note, 2 patients also showed chilblains resembling signs observed in interferonopathy. Remarkably, our data show that STISS patient cells exhibit a profound remodeling of the mTORC1 and mitophagy pathways with an induction of type I interferon-stimulated genes.

Conclusion: We refine the phenotype of STISS and show that it can be clinically recognizable and biochemically diagnosed by a type I interferon gene signature.

Keywords: Intellectual disability; Interferon; PSMD12; Proteasome; Thumb.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Haploinsufficiency
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability* / diagnosis
  • Language Development Disorders* / genetics
  • Musculoskeletal Abnormalities* / genetics
  • Phenotype