Tocotrienols-rich naringenin nanoemulgel for the management of diabetic wound: Fabrication, characterization and comparative in vitro evaluations

Curr Res Pharmacol Drug Discov. 2021 Mar 14;2:100019. doi: 10.1016/j.crphar.2021.100019. eCollection 2021.


The present research had been attempted to formulate and characterize tocotrienols-rich naringenin nanoemulgel for topical application in chronic wound conditions associated with diabetes. In due course, different phases of the nanoemulsion were chosen based on the solubility study, where combination of Capryol 90 and tocotrienols, Solutol HS15, and Transcutol P were selected as oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant, respectively. The nanoemulsions were formulated using the spontaneous emulsification method. Subsequently, Carbopols were incorporated to develop corresponding nanoemulgels of the optimized nanoemulsions. Thermodynamically stable optimized nanoemulgels were evaluated for their globule size, polydispersity index (PDI), surface charge, viscosity, mucoadhesive property, spreadability, in vitro release and release mechanism. Further, increasing polymer concentration in the nanoemulgels was reflected with the increased mucoadhesive property with corresponding decrease in the release rate of the drug. The optimized nanoemulgel (NG1) consisted of uniform dispersion (PDI, 0.452 ​± ​0.03) of the nanometric globules (145.58 ​± ​12.5) of the dispersed phase, and negative surface charge (-21.1 ​± ​3.32 ​mV) with viscosity 297,600 ​cP and good spreadability. In vitro release of naringenin in phosphate buffer saline revealed a sustained release profile up to a maximum of 74.62 ​± ​4.54% from the formulated nanoemulgel (NG1) within the time-frame of 24 ​h. Alternatively, the release from the nanoemulsion was much higher (89.17 ​± ​2.87%), which might be due to lack of polymer coating on the dispersed oil droplets. Moreover, the in vitro release kinetics from the nanoemulgel followed the first-order release and Higuchi model with non-Fickian diffusion. Therefore, encouraging results in this research is evident in bringing a promising future in wound management, particularly associated with diabetes complications.

Keywords: Carbopol; Diabetic wound healing; Low-energy emulsification; Nanoemulgel; Naringenin; Tocotrienols-rich fraction.