Aim: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of sequential use of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide after metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) from the US payer perspective.
Materials and methods: An economic simulation model with a lifetime horizon was developed to estimate T2D-related complications (including cardiovascular [CV] death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal outcomes) using EMPA-REG OUTCOME data or UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk equations, in patients with or without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), respectively. Evidence synthesis methods were used to provide effectiveness inputs for empagliflozin and liraglutide. Population characteristics, adverse event rates, treatment escalation, costs ($2019), and utilities (both discounted 3%/year) were taken from US sources.
Results: Compared with second-line liraglutide in the overall T2D population, second-line empagliflozin was dominant as it was associated with lower total lifetime cost ($11 244/patient less) and resulted in a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gain (0.32/patient). Second-line empagliflozin was associated with reductions in CV death (by 5%) and lower cumulative complication rates in patients with CVD (by 2%), relative to second-line liraglutide. These findings were consistent among patients with co-morbid CVD, with gains in incremental QALYs (0.43/patient) and lower lifetime cost (by $10 175/patient) relative to second-line liraglutide. Scenario analyses consistently showed dominance for second-line empagliflozin.
Conclusion: For patients with T2D, use of second-line empagliflozin combined with metformin was a dominant strategy for US payers, associated with extended survival, improved QALYs, and lower costs compared with second-line liraglutide.
Keywords: GLP-1; SGLT-2 inhibitor; cardiovascular disease; cost-effectiveness; empagliflozin; liraglutide.
© 2021 Boehringer Ingelheim. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.