Study objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep breathing disorder associated with adverse health outcomes, but it remains largely underdiagnosed. The STOP questionnaire is a simple tool for screening OSA and is widely used in various populations. The objective of this study was to determine the predictive parameters of the STOP questionnaire to detect OSA in sleep clinics, medical population, surgical population, commercial drivers, and the general population.
Methods: Electronic databases were searched from January 2008 to April 2021. Pooled predictive parameters were recalculated using 2 × 2 contingency tables and random-effects meta-analyses were performed. The combined test characteristics at different OSA severities (any OSA [apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 events/h], moderate-to-severe OSA [apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events/h], severe OSA [apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 30 events/h]) were used to compare the accuracy of the STOP questionnaire with polysomnography. The quality of the studies was evaluated using Cochrane Methods criteria.
Results: Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria: 16 were in the sleep clinic population (n = 8,132), 4 in the medical population (n = 1,023), 2 in the surgical population (n = 258), and 1 study each on commercial drivers (n = 85) and the general population (n = 4,770). A STOP score ≥ 2 showed excellent sensitivity to the different OSA severities for the sleep clinic population (> 89%) and to severe OSA for the medical population (85.6%). In both populations, the STOP questionnaire also had excellent discriminative power to exclude severe OSA (negative predictive values > 84%). The pooled sensitivity and negative predictive values for the surgical population with moderate-to-severe OSA was 81% and 75%.
Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that the STOP questionnaire is a valid and effective screening tool for OSA among these populations.
Citation: Patel D, Tsang J, Saripella A, et al. Validation of the STOP questionnaire as a screening tool for OSA among different populations: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. J Clin Sleep Med. 2022;18(5):1441-1453.
Keywords: STOP questionnaire; obstructive sleep apnea; predictive parameters; screening questionnaire; sleep studies; systematic review and meta-analysis.
© 2022 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.