Purpose: The aim of the study was to project the long-term net health benefits of mavacamten for the treatment of symptomatic obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in the United States.
Methods: A Markov model with 4 mutually exclusive health states (New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional classes I, II, and III/IV and death) was developed to project the life-years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) over a lifetime horizon for patients with symptomatic obstructive HCM receiving mavacamten with or without β-blocker (BB) or calcium channel blocker (CCB) monotherapy or placebo with or without BB or CCB monotherapy. The model simulated a patient cohort with a starting age of 59 years and 41% women. Transition probabilities across NYHA functional classes were estimated using data from the Phase III Clinical Study to Evaluate Mavacamten (MYK-461) in Adults With Symptomatic Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (EXPLORER-HCM) and the EXPLORER long-term extension (EXPLORER-LTE) cohort from the Long-term Safety Extension Study of Mavacamten in Adults who Have Completed MAVERICK-HCM or EXPLORER-HCM (MAVA-LTE) trial and were extrapolated after week 30. The mortality risks of NYHA functional class I were assumed to be the age- and sex-specific mortality risks of the US general population. The mortality risks for NYHA class II and III/IV were estimated using those for class I in conjunction with the relative mortality risks derived using patients with obstructive HCM from a large real-world registry. Health state utilities for each treatment were estimated from EXPLORER-HCM. Both LYs and QALYs were aggregated over a lifetime for each treatment arm, discounted at 3% annually, and compared between the 2 arms. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the model findings.
Findings: Over a lifetime, treatment with mavacamten with or without BB or CCB monotherapy was associated with 3.67 incremental LYs compared with placebo with or without BB or CCB monotherapy (13.00 vs 9.33 LYs). Compared with individuals in the placebo group, patients in the mavacamten group were projected to spend 6.17 additional LYs in NYHA functional class I and 0.04 and 2.46 fewer LYs in NYHA functional classes II and III/IV, respectively. With utilities incorporated, mavacamten with or without BB or CCB monotherapy was associated with 4.17 additional QALYs compared with placebo with or without BB or CCB monotherapy (11.74 vs 7.57 QALYs). In the sensitivity analyses, incremental benefits ranged from 1.55 to 6.21 LYs and from 2.48 to 6.19 QALYs across the scenarios.
Implications: This model projected substantial net health benefits associated with mavacamten for symptomatic obstructive HCM owing to improved patient survival and quality of life. The projected QALY gain underscored the likely long-term clinical value of mavacamten in symptomatic obstructive HCM.
Keywords: Markov model; life-years; mavacamten; net health benefit; obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; quality-adjusted life-years.
Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.