Disrupting ripples: Methods, results, and caveats in closed-loop approaches in rodents

J Sleep Res. 2022 Dec;31(6):e13532. doi: 10.1111/jsr.13532. Epub 2021 Dec 15.


Hippocampal ripple oscillations have been associated with memory reactivations during wake and sleep. These reactivations should contribute to working memory and memory consolidation respectively. In the past decade studies have moved from being observational to actively disrupting ripple-related activity in closed-loop approaches to enable causal investigations into their function. All together these studies have been able to provide evidence that wake, task-related ripple activity is important for working memory and planning but less important for stabilisation of spatial representations. Rest and sleep-related ripple activity, in contrast, is important for long-term memory performance and thus memory consolidation. In this review, we summarise results from different closed-loop approaches in rodents. Further, we highlight differences in detection and stimulation methods as well as controls and discuss how these differences could influence outcomes.

Keywords: memory; memory consolidation; reactivation; replay; sharp-wave ripples; sleep.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Hippocampus / physiology
  • Memory Consolidation* / physiology
  • Rodentia*
  • Sleep / physiology