Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Chronic Kidney Disease in Children

Semin Nephrol. 2021 Sep;41(5):434-438. doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2021.09.005.


Over the past 2 decades, cardiovascular (CV) disease has been recognized as one of the most important complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and one of the leading causes of death in children with advanced CKD and in young adults who developed CKD during childhood. CV abnormalities develop early and progress during the course of CKD in children. Characterization of the prevalence and evolution of CV disease risk factors in progressive CKD is one of the primary aims of the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study. In this review, we summarize up-to-date findings from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study with a focus on traditional and CKD-related CV risk factors and early subclinical markers of cardiac and vascular structure and function. We also discuss the effect of CV risk factors on progression of CKD.

Keywords: CKiD; Cardiovascular disease; children; chronic kidney disease.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / etiology
  • Child
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Heart
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors


  • Biomarkers