The vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is a rotary motor proton pump that is regulated by an assembly equilibrium between active holoenzyme and autoinhibited V1 -ATPase and Vo proton channel subcomplexes. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of yeast V-ATPase assembled in vitro from lipid nanodisc reconstituted Vo and mutant V1 . Our analysis identified holoenzymes in three active rotary states, indicating that binding of V1 to Vo provides sufficient free energy to overcome Vo autoinhibition. Moreover, the structures suggest that the unequal spacing of Vo 's proton-carrying glutamic acid residues serves to alleviate the symmetry mismatch between V1 and Vo motors, a notion that is supported by mutagenesis experiments. We also uncover a structure of free V1 bound to Oxr1, a conserved but poorly characterized factor involved in the oxidative stress response. Biochemical experiments show that Oxr1 inhibits V1 -ATPase and causes disassembly of the holoenzyme, suggesting that Oxr1 plays a direct role in V-ATPase regulation.
Keywords: Cryo-electron microscopy; Oxr1p; TLDc domain; reversible disassembly; vacuolar ATPase.
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