Phenotype, genotype, treatment, and survival outcomes in patients with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis deficiency

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022 Aug;150(2):456-466. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2021.10.037. Epub 2021 Dec 15.


Background: X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency disease caused by XIAP gene mutations. A broad range of phenotype, severity, and age at onset present challenges for patient management.

Objective: We sought to characterize the phenotype, treatment, and survival outcomes of XIAP deficiency and to assess parameters influencing prognosis.

Methods: Data published from 2006 to 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: A total of 167 patients from 117 families with XIAP deficiency were reported with 90 different mutations. A wide spectrum of clinical features were seen, of which hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and inflammatory bowel disease were the most common. Patients frequently developed multiple features with no clear genotype-phenotype correlation. A total of 117 patients were managed conservatively and 50 underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), with respective overall survival probabilities of 90% and 53% at age 16 years. The predominant indication for HSCT was early-onset HLH. Active HLH and myeloablative conditioning regimens increased HSCT-related mortality, although HSCT outcome was much better after 2015 than before. For conservatively managed patients reaching adulthood, survival probabilities were 86% at age 30 years and 37% by age 52 years, with worse outcomes for patients developing the disease before the age of 5 years or with new disease features in adulthood. Nine asymptomatic mutation carriers with a median age of 13.5 years were identified.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the variable nature of XIAP deficiency, which evolves over life for individual patients. Better therapeutic strategies and prospective studies are required to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve decision making and long-term outcomes for patients with XIAP deficiency.

Keywords: HLH; HSCT; IBD; X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis; XIAP deficiency; adult; conservative treatment; phenotype; primary immunodeficiency; survival outcomes; therapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis
  • Genetic Diseases, X-Linked
  • Genotype
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Humans
  • Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic* / genetics
  • Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic* / therapy
  • Lymphoproliferative Disorders
  • Phenotype
  • Retrospective Studies
  • X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein / genetics


  • X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein

Supplementary concepts

  • Lymphoproliferative Syndrome, X-Linked, 2