Oncologic outcomes of conservative treatment of atypical polypoid adenomyoma of the uterus: A two-center experience

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2022 Oct;159(1):79-85. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.14077. Epub 2022 Jan 7.


Objective: Atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APA) is a rare uterine premalignant lesion mainly occurring in premenopausal and nulliparous women. Although hysteroscopic resection (HR) has showed promising results, the conservative management of APA in young women is not standardized, and few data are available in the literature. We aimed to assess oncologic outcomes of the conservative treatment of APA.

Methods: A multicenter observational retrospective cohort study was performed including all patients with APA who underwent conservative treatment from January 2006 to June 2020. Rates of each oncologic outcome (i.e. initial complete response, persistence, progression to cancer, recurrence, long-term treatment success, and treatment failure) were calculated for all conservative treatment together and separately.

Results: Twenty-five patients were included. Conservative treatments consisted of HR alone (n = 14) and HR + progestin (n = 11). Overall, 24 (96%) patients showed initial complete response, of which 21 (84%) showed long-term treatment success; four (16%) patients had progression to cancer, of which two (8%) first recurred as APA. Long-term treatment success was achieved in 13 of 14 (92.9%) patients with HR alone and 8 of 11 (72.3%) with HR + progestin.

Conclusion: Conservative treatment appears to be a safe option in women with APA. The four-steps HR might be considered as the first-line conservative approach, while the addition of progestin does not seem to improve oncologic outcomes. However, the risk of progression to cancer highlights the need for a close and long-term follow up with ultrasonography and hysteroscopic biopsies, and for hysterectomy in patients not desiring pregnancy.

Keywords: atypical polypoid adenomyoma; carcinoma; endometrium; fertility-sparing; hyperplasia; hysteroscopy; levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device; levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system; progesterone; progestogens; tumor.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adenomyoma* / surgery
  • Conservative Treatment
  • Endometrial Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Progestins / therapeutic use
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Uterine Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Uterus / pathology


  • Progestins