GNRH1 Variants in Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: Single-Center Experience and Systematic Literature Review

Neuroendocrinology. 2022;112(8):723-732. doi: 10.1159/000521558. Epub 2021 Dec 17.


Objective: As GNRH1 genotype-phenotype correlation in CHH is not well studied, we aim to describe the GNRH1 variants in our CHH cohort and present a systematic review as well as genotype-phenotype analysis of all mutation-positive cases reported in the world literature.

Design: This is a retrospective study of GNRH1 mutation-positive patients from a western Indian center. PRISMA guidelines-based PubMed search of the published literature of all GNRH1 mutation-positive patients was conducted.

Setting: This study was conducted in an academic medical center.

Patient(s): This study included 2 probands from our cohort and 19 probands from the world literature.

Main outcome measure(s): Demographic details, clinical presentation, biochemistry, imaging, treatment details, and genotypic data were recorded.

Result(s): Two probands in our cohort carried two novel pathogenic biallelic GNRH1 variants (p.Glu24Leu, c.238-2A>G). Both had a severe reproductive phenotype. We report successful gonadotropin therapy and fertility in 1 proband. We included 19 probands from 12 studies after the literature review. Ten CHH probands (inclusive 2 from this study) with biallelic GNRH1 variants had severe reproductive phenotype, low gonadotropin levels, low/normal prolactin, normal pituitary imaging, and no extra-reproductive phenotype. Of seven biallelic variants reported, three were frameshift, two were splice-site, and two were missense mutations. All of them were pathogenic/likely pathogenic without oligogenicity. Of seven monoallelic GNRH1 variants reported in 11 probands, 4 had nonreproductive phenotype, 3 were benign/likely benign, and 4 were oligogenic.

Conclusion(s): GNRH1 biallelic variants lead to severe reproductive phenotype, with low gonadotropin levels without nonreproductive features or oligogenicity. However, the role of GNRH1 monoallelic variants in CHH pathophysiology for reported variants remains questionable.

Keywords: Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; GNRH1.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism* / genetics
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Retrospective Studies