Current trends in the anterior cruciate ligament part 1: biology and biomechanics

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2022 Jan;30(1):20-33. doi: 10.1007/s00167-021-06826-y. Epub 2021 Dec 20.


A trend within the orthopedic community is rejection of the belief that "one size fits all." Freddie Fu, among others, strived to individualize the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries based on the patient's anatomy. Further, during the last two decades, greater emphasis has been placed on improving the outcomes of ACL reconstruction (ACL-R). Accordingly, anatomic tunnel placement is paramount in preventing graft impingement and restoring knee kinematics. Additionally, identification and management of concomitant knee injuries help to re-establish knee kinematics and prevent lower outcomes and registry studies continue to determine which graft yields the best outcomes. The utilization of registry studies has provided several large-scale epidemiologic studies that have bolstered outcomes data, such as avoiding allografts in pediatric populations and incorporating extra-articular stabilizing procedures in younger athletes to prevent re-rupture. In describing the anatomic and biomechanical understanding of the ACL and the resulting improvements in terms of surgical reconstruction, the purpose of this article is to illustrate how basic science advancements have directly led to improvements in clinical outcomes for ACL-injured patients.Level of evidenceV.

Keywords: ACL; ACL biology; ACL biomechanics; ACL injury; ACL kinematics; ACL reconstruction; Morphology; Regenerative medicine; Trends.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries* / surgery
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction*
  • Biology
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / surgery