Sex-Related Differences in Mortality Following Admission for Acute Heart Failure Across the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Spectrum

J Am Heart Assoc. 2022 Jan 4;11(1):e022404. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.121.022404. Epub 2021 Dec 20.


Background Following a heart failure (HF)-decompensation, there is scarce data about sex-related prognostic differences across left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) status. We sought to evaluate sex-related differences in 6-month mortality risk across LVEF following admission for acute HF. Methods and Results We retrospectively evaluated 4812 patients consecutively admitted for acute HF in a multicenter registry from 3 hospitals. Study end points were all-cause, cardiovascular, and HF-related mortality at 6-month follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression models were fitted to investigate sex-related differences across LVEF. A total of 2243 (46.6%) patients were women, 2569 (53.4%) were men, and 2608 (54.2%) showed LVEF≥50%. At 6-month follow-up, 645 patients died (13.4%), being 544 (11.3%) and 416 (8.6%) cardiovascular and HF-related deaths, respectively. LVEF was not independently associated with mortality (HR, 1.02; 95% CI 0.99-1.05; P=0.135). After multivariable adjustment, we found no sex-related differences in all-cause mortality (P value for interaction=0.168). However, a significant interaction between sex and cardiovascular and HF mortality risks was found across LVEF (P value for interaction=0.030 and 0.007, respectively). Compared with men, women had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular and HF-mortality at LVEF<25% and <43%, respectively. On the contrary, women showed a higher risk of HF-mortality at the upper extreme of LVEF (>80%). Conclusions Following an admission for acute HF, no sex-related differences were found in all-cause mortality risk. However, when compared with men, women showed a lower risk of cardiovascular and HF-mortality at the lower extreme of LVEF. On the contrary, they showed a higher risk of HF death at the upper extreme.

Keywords: heart failure; left ventricular ejection fraction; mortality; sex.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cause of Death
  • Female
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stroke Volume
  • Ventricular Function, Left*