Background: Most dietary indices reflect foods and beverages and do not include exposures from dietary supplements (DS) that provide substantial amounts of micronutrients. A nutrient-based approach that captures total intake inclusive of DS can strengthen exposure assessment.
Objectives: We examined the construct and criterion validity of the Total Nutrient Index (TNI) among US adults (≥19 years; nonpregnant or lactating).
Methods: The TNI includes 8 underconsumed micronutrients identified by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: calcium; magnesium; potassium; choline; and vitamins A, C, D, and E. The TNI is expressed as a percentage of the RDA or Adequate Intake to compute micronutrient component scores; the mean of the component scores yields the TNI score, ranging from 0-100. Data from exemplary menus and the 2003-2006 (≥19 years; n = 8861) and 2011-2014 NHANES (≥19 years; n = 9954) were employed. Exemplary menus were used to determine whether the TNI yielded high scores from dietary sources (women, 31-50 years; men ≥ 70 years). TNI scores were correlated with Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2015 overall and component scores for dairy, fruits, and vegetables; TNI component scores for vitamins A, C, D, and E were correlated with respective biomarker data. TNI scores were compared between groups with known differences in nutrient intake based on the literature.
Results: The TNI yielded high scores on exemplary menus (84.8-93.3/100) and was moderately correlated (r = 0.48) with the HEI-2015. Mean TNI scores were significantly different for DS users (83.5) compared with nonusers (67.1); nonsmokers (76.8) compared with smokers (70.3); and those living with food security (76.6) compared with food insecurity (69.1). Correlations of TNI vitamin component scores with available biomarkers ranged from 0.12 (α-tocopherol) to 0.36 (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D), and were significantly higher than correlations obtained from the diet alone.
Conclusions: The evaluation of validity supports that the TNI is a useful construct to assess total micronutrient exposures of underconsumed micronutrients among US adults.
Keywords: diet quality; dietary supplement; total nutrient index; total usual intake estimation; validity.
© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition.