Incidence, predictors of success and outcome of LISA in very preterm infants

Pediatr Pulmonol. 2022 Jul;57(7):1751-1759. doi: 10.1002/ppul.25798. Epub 2022 Apr 26.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the success rate of less invasive surfactant administration (LISA), to identify early predictive factors for the outcome of LISA, and to compare neonatal outcomes between the LISA failure group and the group of infants who were successfully treated with LISA.

Design: A retrospective cohort study.

Patients: Infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestation (n = 158) and treated with LISA for respiratory distress syndrome.

Results: LISA was successful in 86 cases (54.4%); 72 preterm infants (45.6%) needed additional surfactant therapy and/or mechanical ventilation in the first 72 h (LISA failure). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, six independent predictors of LISA success were identified: core temperature at the time of admission (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 3.56), dose of poractant alfa (<200 mg/kg; adjusted OR: 0.254), elevated C-reactive protein (>10 mg/L) at 24 h of life (adjusted OR: 0.28), highest respiratory severity score (RSS) during the first hour of life or at the time of LISA (adjusted OR: 0.463), maternal age (adjusted OR: 0.923), and birth weight (adjusted OR: 1.003). The receiver operating curve created by using the identified factors indicates good predictive power with an area under the curve of 0.85. LISA failure was associated with a substantially higher risk of complications.

Conclusion: LISA success can be predicted by variables available before the intervention. Failure of LISA is relatively frequent event in very preterm infants and is associated with adverse outcomes. Prevention of hypothermia during early stabilization and appropriate dosing of surfactant may increase LISA success rates and improve patient outcome.

Keywords: continuous positive airway pressure; respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants; surfactant.

MeSH terms

  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
  • Female
  • Fetal Growth Retardation
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Infant, Premature, Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Infant, Premature, Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Pulmonary Surfactants* / therapeutic use
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn* / drug therapy
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn* / therapy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Surface-Active Agents


  • Pulmonary Surfactants
  • Surface-Active Agents