Virologic outcomes among adults with HIV using integrase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy

AIDS. 2022 Feb 1;36(2):277-286. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000003069.


Background: Integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI)-based regimens have been recommended as first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for adults with HIV. But data on long-term effects of InSTI-based regimens on virologic outcomes remain limited. Here we examined whether InSTI improved long-term virologic outcomes compared with efavirenz (EFV).

Methods: We included adults from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design who initiated their first ART regimen containing either InSTI or EFV between 2009 and 2016. We estimated differences in the proportion virologically suppressed up to 7 years of follow-up in observational intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses.

Results: Of 15 318 participants, 5519 (36%) initiated an InSTI-based regimen and 9799 (64%) initiated the EFV-based regimen. In observational intention-to-treat analysis, 81.3% of patients in the InSTI group and 67.3% in the EFV group experienced virologic suppression at 3 months after ART initiation, corresponding to a difference of 14.0% (95% CI 12.4-15.6). At 1 year after ART initiation, the proportion virologically suppressed was 89.5% in the InSTI group and 90.2% in the EFV group, corresponding to a difference of -0.7% (95% CI -2.1 to 0.8). At 7 years, the proportion virologically suppressed was 94.5% in the InSTI group and 92.5% in the EFV group, corresponding to a difference of 2.0% (95% CI -7.3 to 11.3). The observational per-protocol results were similar to intention-to-treat analyses.

Conclusions: Although InSTI-based initial ART regimens had more rapid virologic response than EFV-based regimens, the long-term virologic effect was similar. Our findings may inform guidelines regarding preferred initial regimens for HIV treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Cohort Studies
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors* / therapeutic use
  • Humans


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors

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