What's new on the front-line of gout pharmacotherapy?

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2022 Mar;23(4):453-464. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2021.2020249. Epub 2022 Jan 5.


Introduction: Gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis affecting millions of persons around the world. Painful flares and tophaceous deposits are debilitating, reduce quality of life and put strain on health-care systems.

Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the treatment of gout flares and lowering serum urate. First line agents are discussed with emphasis on emerging evidence. Novel therapies are also covered.

Expert opinion: Lifestyle modifications form a part of gout prevention. NSAIDs, colchicine, and glucocorticoids are first line agents for gout flares. The IL-1β antagonists are highly effective for arresting flares but their cost-effectiveness render them salvage therapies. Allopurinol is an agent of first choice for urate lowering therapy. In Southeast Asian and Black populations, screening for HLA*B58:01 mutation is a cost-effective approach to decrease the occurrence of allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome. Febuxostat is another efficacious urate lowering therapy, but has received a U.S. FDA black box warning for cardiovascular safety. Novel uricosurics are a class for continued drug development; verinurad and arhalofenate are agents with future promise. For patients with recalcitrant gout, pegloticase is effective. Its immunogenicity significantly threatens the achievement of sustained urate lowering responses. Abrogating pegloticase's immunogenicity with immunomodulatory co-therapy may lend to sustained efficacy.

Keywords: Allopurinol; anakinra; canakinumab; febuxostat; gout; pegloticase; urate; uric acid; uricosurics.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Allopurinol
  • Febuxostat / therapeutic use
  • Gout Suppressants / therapeutic use
  • Gout* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Quality of Life*
  • Uric Acid


  • Gout Suppressants
  • Febuxostat
  • Uric Acid
  • Allopurinol