Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and management of cryptococcosis and rare yeast infections in the haematology/oncology setting, 2021

Intern Med J. 2021 Nov;51 Suppl 7:118-142. doi: 10.1111/imj.15590.


Cryptococcosis caused by the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii complex is an important opportunistic infection in people with immunodeficiency, including in the haematology/oncology setting. This may manifest clinically as cryptococcal meningitis or pulmonary cryptococcosis, or be detected incidentally by cryptococcal antigenemia, a positive sputum culture or radiological imaging. Non-Candida, non-Cryptococcus spp. rare yeast fungaemia are increasingly common in this population. These consensus guidelines aim to provide clinicians working in the Australian and New Zealand haematology/oncology setting with clear guiding principles and practical recommendations for the management of cryptococcosis, while also highlighting important and emerging rare yeast infections and their recommended management.

Keywords: C. gattii; Cryptococcus spp.; cryptococcal meningitis; cryptococcosis; immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

MeSH terms

  • Australia / epidemiology
  • Cryptococcosis* / diagnosis
  • Cryptococcosis* / drug therapy
  • Cryptococcus gattii*
  • Cryptococcus neoformans*
  • Hematology*
  • Humans
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae