Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Symptomatic, Non-Limb-Threatening Peripheral Artery Disease: A State-of-the-Art Review

Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2022 Jan;15(1):e011320. doi: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.121.011320. Epub 2021 Dec 23.


Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are health outcomes directly reported by the patient that can be used to measure the effect of disease and treatments on patient perceived well-being. This review summarizes current evidence regarding the validation of PROMs in people with symptomatic, nonlimb-threatening peripheral artery disease. A literature search was conducted to identify studies of symptomatic peripheral artery disease without limb-threatening ischemia that included PROMs and had sample sizes ≥25. PROMs were summarized along a continuum of validation using classical test theory framework and according to whether they fulfilled defined criteria for (1) content validity; (2) psychometric validation; and (3) further validation evidence base expansion. Of 2198 articles identified, 157 (7.1%) met inclusion criteria. Twenty-four PROMs in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease were reviewed. Among disease-specific PROMs, 8 of 15 had excellent reliability as measured by a Cronbach alpha ≥0.80. Based on established criteria for PROM responsiveness, 6 of 15 disease-specific PROMs demonstrated excellent sensitivity to change. Of these, the disease-specific peripheral artery questionnaire, vascular quality of life questionnaire, and walking impairment questionnaire met criteria for validation at each stage of the continuum. For generic (nondisease specific) PROMs, the European Quality of Life 5-Dimension and SF-36 had the most extensive evidence of validation. Evidence from this review can inform selection of PROMs aligned with scientific and clinical goals, given the variable degree of validation and potential complementary nature of the measures.

Keywords: artery; ischemia; psychometric; quality of life; sample size.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Patient Reported Outcome Measures
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease* / diagnosis
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease* / therapy
  • Quality of Life*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Treatment Outcome