To evaluate the yield of mini-bronchoalveolar lavage compared with that of directed bronchoalveolar lavage in critically ill patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019-associated pulmonary aspergillosis.
Design: A retrospective cohort study.
Setting: The ICU of the Amsterdam University Medical Centers.
Patients: Patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 screened for coronavirus disease 2019-associated pulmonary aspergillosis.
Interventions: Mini-bronchoalveolar lavage and/or directed bronchoalveolar lavage.
Measurements and main results: In total, 76 patients were included, 20 of whom underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, 40 mini-bronchoalveolar lavage, and 16 both mini-bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchoalveolar lavage. The percentage of samples with one or more positive Aspergillus detecting test (galactomannan, culture, polymerase chain reaction) did not differ significantly between bronchoalveolar lavage and mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (16.7% vs 21.4%). However, in mini-bronchoalveolar lavage samples, this was more frequently driven by a positive polymerase chain reaction than in bronchoalveolar lavage samples (17.9% vs 2.8%; p = 0.030). In 81% of patients (13/16) with both mini-bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchoalveolar lavage, the test results were in agreement. In 11 of 12 patients (92%) with first a negative mini-bronchoalveolar lavage, the subsequent bronchoalveolar lavage sample was also negative.
Conclusions: We found a similar percentage of positive test results in mini-bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchoalveolar lavage samples in patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019-associated pulmonary aspergillosis. Our findings indicate that mini-bronchoalveolar lavage could be a useful tool for coronavirus disease 2019-associated pulmonary aspergillosis screening in ICU patients.
Keywords: aspergillosis; bronchoalveolar lavage; bronchoscopy; critical care; diagnosis; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the Society of Critical Care Medicine.