Objectives: We aimed to identify the risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hospitalization to provide evidence for improved clinical care of patients with COVID-19 infection.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 300 participants. The collected data comprised sociodemographic data, lifestyle habits, physical activity, medical history, anthropometric measurements, COVID-19-related symptoms, dietary habits prior to and after COVID-19 infection, and psychological status.
Results: Fifty-nine participants were hospitalized. Fever, dry cough, joint pain, chills, diarrhea, and shortness of breath were significantly associated with hospitalization owing to COVID-19. Adults with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular diseases had higher rates of hospitalization. The findings also showed that residential area and age were related to COVID-19 hospitalization. Furthermore, our analysis revealed that certain dietary habits were associated with hospitalization rates.
Conclusion: Our study confirmed that older age, urban residence, illiteracy, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and symptoms of loss of smell and sneezing elevated the risk of hospitalization among patients with COVID-19 infection. Patients with a higher risk of hospitalization may benefit from targeted therapeutic and preventive interventions.
Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019; cross-sectional study; diet; hospitalization; pandemic; risk factor.