Allergen-Specific IgE and IgG4 as Biomarkers for Immunologic Changes during Subcutaneous Allergen Immunotherapy

Antibodies (Basel). 2021 Dec 7;10(4):49. doi: 10.3390/antib10040049.


(1) Background: Biomarkers of efficacy for subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) on allergic rhinitis have not been evaluated in details. The present study aims to assess the relevance of measuring of sIgE, sIgG4 and IgE/IgG4 ratio during SCIT in patients with allergic rhinitis; (2) Methods: 20 patients, 13 men and 7 women aged 19 to 58 years, with clinically manifested seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis were studied. At the initiation and in the end of the three-year course of SCIT serum allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 were measured with ImmunoCAP system. The sIgE/sIgG4 ratio was calculated as a biomarker for immunologic effectiveness; (3) Results: There was a significant increase of sIgG4 antibodies (p < 0.05), while at the end of SCIT for the sIgE levels no significant changes were seen (p > 0.05). Moreover, 90% of patients showed a decrease of the IgE/IgG4 ratio; (4) Conclusions: In most of treated patients with AR, SCIT with Bulgarian allergen products leads to clear immunological changes. After a 3-year of SCIT there is a significant increase in allergen specific IgG4 levels and both decrease of sIgE and IgE/IgG4 ratio. sIgE, sIgG4 and IgE/IgG4 ratio can be used as a substantial biomarker for predicting immunological effectiveness of SCIT.

Keywords: biomarkers; sIgE/sIgG4 ratio; specific IgE; specific IgG4; subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy.