Context: Despite the growing evidence of the clinical value of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) positron emission tomography (PET) in the evaluation of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), its role remains to be clarified at different time points in the journey of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). The rarity of the disease is however a significant impediment to prospective clinical trials.
Objective: The goals of the study were to assess the indications and value of SSTR PET/computed tomography (CT) in patients with MEN1.
Methods: We retrospectively included patients from 7 French expert centers for whom data on SSTR PET/CT and morphological imaging performed at the same period were available. Detection rates of PET study were analyzed.
Results: One hundred and 8 patients were included. SSTR PET/CT was performed at screening (n = 33), staging (n = 34), restaging (n = 37), and for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy selection (n = 4). PET detected positive pancreatic lesions in 91% of cases at screening, with results comparable with magnetic resonance imaging but superior to CT (P = .049). Metastases (mostly lymph node [LN]) were present at the screening phase in 28% of cases, possibly due to the suboptimal value of screening morphological imaging in the assessment of nodal metastases and/or a long delay between imaging studies. SSTR PET/CT was considered superior or complementary to the reference standard in the assessment of LN or distant metastases in the vast majority of cases and regardless of the clinical scenario.
Conclusion: This study shows the potential added value of SSTR PET in the assessment of MEN1-associated NETs and provides great impetus toward its implementation in the evaluation of patients with MEN1.
Keywords: MEN1; gallium 68–labeled somatostatin analogs; genetics; neuroendocrine tumors; positron emission tomography; somatostatin receptors.
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