Diagnosis and treatment of uterine artery pseudoaneurysm: Case series and literature review

Medicine (Baltimore). 2021 Dec 23;100(51):e28093. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000028093.


Background: Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) is a rare but potentially life-threatening cause of hemorrhage. Nonetheless, its knowledge could be insufficient among obstetricians, gynecologists, and radiologists. We aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of UAP.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed nine female patients diagnosed with UAP at our institute between 2013 and 2020.

Results: Seven cases presented with a history of traumatic surgery including cesarean section, dilation and curettage, laparoscopic myomectomy, and cervical conization. Two cases occurred after spontaneous vaginal delivery and second-trimester pregnancy termination. The main symptom was heavy/massive/prolonged vaginal bleeding. All patients were first evaluated by color Doppler ultrasonography and three cases were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Severn patients underwent transarterial embolization (TAE) of the uterine arteries, and two were managed conservatively. All patients had good outcomes.

Conclusions: UAP can develop after traumatic pelvic operations and non-traumatic delivery/abortion. It may be more common than previously considered. The risk of rupture may be correlated with multiple factors other than the mass size. TAE of the uterine artery could be an effective management strategy for ruptured UAP. However, some cases can resolve spontaneously without TAE, suggesting that conservative management can be employed in some women.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Spontaneous
  • Adult
  • Aneurysm, False / diagnostic imaging*
  • Aneurysm, False / etiology
  • Aneurysm, False / therapy*
  • Cesarean Section / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Pregnancy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • Uterine Artery / diagnostic imaging*
  • Uterine Artery Embolization*
  • Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology