The neuropsychiatry of Parkinson's disease: advances and challenges

Lancet Neurol. 2022 Jan;21(1):89-102. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00330-6.


In people with Parkinson's disease, neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms are common throughout the disease course. These symptoms can be disabling and as clinically relevant as motor symptoms, and their presentation can be similar to, or distinct from, their counterparts in the general population. Correlates and risk factors for developing neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms include demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics. The underlying neurobiology of these presentations is complex and not well understood, with the strongest evidence for neuropathological changes associated with Parkinson's disease, mechanisms linked to dopaminergic therapy, and effects not specific to Parkinson's disease. Assessment instruments and formal diagnostic criteria exist, but there is little routine screening of these signs and symptoms in clinical practice. Mounting evidence supports a range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, but relatively few efficacious treatment options exist. Optimising the management of neuropsychiatric presentations in people with Parkinson's disease will require additional research, raised awareness, specialised training, and development of innovative models of care.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Neuropsychiatry*
  • Parkinson Disease* / drug therapy
  • Parkinson Disease* / therapy