Isolation of Human Lineage, Fluoroquinolone-Resistant and Extended-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan

Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 Nov 28;10(12):1463. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10121463.

Abstract

An increase in human and veterinary fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli is a global concern. In this study, we isolated fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates from companion animals and characterized them using molecular epidemiological analysis, multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect E. coli ST131 and CTX-M type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), and multi-locus sequence typing analysis. Using plain-CHROMagar ECC, 101 E. coli isolates were isolated from 34 rectal swabs of dogs and cats. The prevalence of resistance to fluoroquinolone and cefotaxime was 27.7% and 24.8%, respectively. The prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates (89.3%) was higher when CHROMagar ECC with CHROMagar ESBL supplement was used for E. coli isolation. The prevalence of cefotaxime resistance was also higher (76.1%) when 1 mg/L of ciprofloxacin-containing CHROMagar ECC was used for isolation. The cefotaxime-resistant isolates possessed CTX-M type β-lactamase genes (CTX-M-14, CTX-M-15, or CTX-M-27). Seventy-five percent of fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were sequence types ST131, ST10, ST1193, ST38, or ST648, which are associated with extensive spread in human clinical settings. In addition, we isolated three common fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli lineages (ST131 clade C1-M-27, C1-nM27 and ST2380) from dogs and their respective owners. These observations suggest that companion animals can harbor fluoroquinolone-resistant and/or ESBL-producing E. coli, in their rectums, and that transmission of these isolates to their owners can occur.

Keywords: ESBL; Escherichia coli; cats; dogs; fluoroquinolone-resistance.