The increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and the increasing severity of the course of these diseases create the need for developing new methods of therapy. The gut microbiome is extensively studied as a factor influencing the development and course of IBD. The composition of intestinal microbiota can be relatively easily modified by diet (i.e., prebiotics, mainly dietary fibers) and bacterial supplementation using beneficial bacteria strains called probiotics. Additionally, the effects of the improved microbiome could be enhanced or gained by using paraprobiotics (non-viable, inactivated bacteria or their components) and/or postbiotics (products of bacterial metabolism or equal synthetic products that beneficially modulate immunological response and inflammation). This study summarizes the recent works on prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics (products merging pre- and probiotics), paraprobiotics and postbiotics in IBD.
Keywords: Crohn’s disease; dietary fibers; inflammatory bowel disease; intestinal microbiome; short chain fatty acids; ulcerative colitis.