Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis in Kidney Transplantation

Medicina (Kaunas). 2021 Dec 3;57(12):1325. doi: 10.3390/medicina57121325.


Due to complex comorbidity, high infectious complication rates, an elevated risk of relapsing for primary renal disease, as well as inferior recipient and allograft survivals, individuals with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAVs) are often considered as poor transplant candidates. Although several aspects of recurrent and de novo AAVs remain unclear, recent evidence suggests that kidney transplantation (KT) represents the best option, which is also the case for this particular subgroup of patients. Special counselling and individualized approaches are strongly recommended at the time of enlistment and during the entire post-transplant follow-up. Current strategies include avoiding transplantation within one year of complete clinical remission and thoroughly assessing the recipient for early signs of renal or systemic vasculitis. The main clinical manifestations of allograft AAV are impaired kidney function, proteinuria, and hematuria with ANCA positivity in most cases. Mixed results have been obtained using high-dose steroids, mycophenolate mofetil, or cyclophosphamide. The aim of the present review was to summarize the available literature on AAVs in KT, particularly focusing on de novo pauci-immune glomerulonephritis.

Keywords: ANCA-associated vasculitis; chronic kidney disease; graft survival; kidney transplant; outcome; patient survival; pauci-immune glomerulonephritis; review.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis* / complications
  • Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic
  • Humans
  • Kidney
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Proteinuria


  • Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic