The Most Common Functional Disorders and Factors Affecting Female Pelvic Floor

Life (Basel). 2021 Dec 14;11(12):1397. doi: 10.3390/life11121397.


The pelvic floor (PF) is made of muscles, ligaments, and fascia, which ensure organ statics, maintain muscle tone, and are involved in contractions. This review describes the myofascial relationships of PF with other parts of the body that determine the proper functions of PF, and also provides insight into PF disorders and the factors contributing to them. PF plays an important role in continence, pelvic support, micturition, defecation, sexual function, childbirth, and locomotion, as well as in stabilizing body posture and breathing, and cooperates with the diaphragm and postural muscles. In addition, PF associates with distant parts of the body, such as the feet and neck, through myofascial connections. Due to tissue continuity, functional disorders of muscles, ligaments, and fascia, even in the areas that are distant from PF, will lead to PF disorders, including urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, prolapse, sexual dysfunction, and pain. Dysfunctions of PF will also affect the rest of the body.

Keywords: incontinence; myofascial; pelvic floor; pelvic floor disorders; risk factors.

Publication types

  • Review