Comparative Mitogenomics of Fungal Species in Stachybotryaceae Provides Evolutionary Insights into Hypocreales

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Dec 12;22(24):13341. doi: 10.3390/ijms222413341.


Stachybotrys chartarum is one of the world's ten most feared fungi within the family Stachybotryaceae, although to date, not a single mitogenome has been documented for Stachybotryaceae. Herein, six mitogenomes of four different species in Stachybotryaceae are newly reported. The S. chartarum mitogenome was 30.7 kb in length and contained two introns (one each in rnl and cox1). A comparison of the mitogenomes of three different individuals of S. chartarum showed few nucleotide variations and conservation of gene content/order and intron insertion. A comparison of the mitogenomes of four different Stachybotryaceae species (Memnoniella echinata, Myrothecium inundatum, S. chartarum, and S. chlorohalonata), however, revealed variations in intron insertion, gene order/content, and nad2/nad3 joining pattern. Further investigations on all Hypocreales species with available mitogenomes showed greater variabilities in gene order (six patterns) and nad2/nad3 joining pattern (five patterns) although a dominant pattern always existed in each case. Ancestral state estimation showed that in each case the dominant pattern was always more ancestral than those rare patterns. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrion-encoded genes supported the placement of Stachybotryaceae in Hypocreales. The crown age of Stachybotryaceae was estimated to be approximately the Early Cretaceous (141-142 Mya). This study greatly promotes our understanding of the evolution of fungal species in Hypocreales.

Keywords: Hypocreales; Stachybotryaceae; Stachybotrys chartarum; comparative mitogenomics; evolution; gene order; mitochondrial genome; phylogeny.

MeSH terms

  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Genome, Fungal*
  • Genome, Mitochondrial*
  • Hypocreales / genetics*
  • Phylogeny*
  • Stachybotrys / genetics*

Supplementary concepts

  • Memnoniella echinata
  • Myrothecium inundatum
  • Stachybotrys chartarum