Fifteen hundred consecutive patients undergoing a first reoperation for coronary revascularization were reviewed to determine early and late results and predictors of survival. Patients were subdivided into cohorts on the basis of the year of reoperation: Group A (1967 to 1978, 436 patients); Group B (1979 to 1981, 439 patients); and Group C (1982 to 1984, 625 patients). Overall operative mortality was 3.4% (51 deaths): 4.6%, 2.3%, and 3.4% for Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Group C had significantly more women (p = 0.01) and patients with triple-vessel disease, left main coronary artery stenosis (greater than or equal to 50%), abnormal left ventricular function, age greater than or equal to 70 years, and graft failure as a surgical indication (all p less than 0.001). The mean interval between operations increased from 50 months for Group A to 84 months for Group C. At reoperation, Group C patients received more grafts, more internal mammary artery grafts, and had a higher prevalence of complete revascularization (all p less than 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses identified left main stenosis (p less than 0.0001), Class III or IV symptoms (p = 0.0002), advanced age (p = 0.0006), Group A (p = 0.02), and incomplete revascularization (p = 0.004) as predictors of increased in-hospital mortality. Follow-up of in-hospital survivors (mean interval 54 months, range 13 to 171 months) documented a 5 year survival rate of 90% and a 10 year survival rate of 75%. Multivariate testing identified advanced age (p less than 0.0001), hypertension (p less than 0.0001), and abnormal left ventricular function (p less than 0.0001) as predictors of decreased late survival.