The association of apolipoproteins with later-life all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a population-based study stratified by age

Sci Rep. 2021 Dec 24;11(1):24440. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-03959-5.


Midlife lipid levels are important predictors of cardiovascular diseases, yet their association with mortality in older adults is less clear. We aimed to (1) identify lipid profiles based on cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins using cluster analysis, and (2) investigate how lipid profiles and lipid levels at different ages are associated with later-life all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. We used data from 98,270 individuals in the Swedish AMORIS cohort who had blood measurements between 1985-1996 and were followed until 2012. Over the follow-up (mean 18.0 years), 30,730 (31.3%) individuals died. Three lipid profiles were identified. Compared with reference profile, a high lipid profile (low ApoA-I and high total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, ApoB, and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio) at ages 39-59 or 60-79 was associated with higher all-cause mortality. A high lipid profile at ≥ 80 years, however, did not confer higher mortality. For the specific markers, high TC (≥ 7.25 mmol/L) was associated with higher all-cause mortality in ages 39-59 but lower mortality in ages 60-79 and ≥ 80. Low ApoA-I (< 1.28 g/L) and high ApoB/ApoA-I ratio (≥ 1.18), on the other hand, were associated with higher cardiovascular mortality regardless of age at lipid measurement, highlighting their potential relevance for survival in both young and older individuals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Apolipoprotein A-I / blood*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lipid Metabolism*
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Sweden / epidemiology


  • APOA1 protein, human
  • Apolipoprotein A-I
  • Biomarkers
  • Lipids